Publications

Reprints available upon request.

Lee Spector (lspector@hampshire.edu)
School of Cognitive Science
Hampshire College


Search tags: agents, artificial life, arts, cognition, education, evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics, human-competitive, instrumentation, learning, push, quantum computation, undergraduate coauthor

Books

Spector, L. 2004/2007. Automatic Quantum Computer Programming: A Genetic Programming Approach. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (Paperback edition published by Springer Science+Business Media, 2007). (Cover, ordering information and links) [quantum computation, evolutionary computation, push, human-competitive]

Deb, K., R. Poli, W. Banzhaf, H-G Beyer, E. Burke, P. Darwen, D. Dasgupta, D. Floreano, J. Foster, M. Harman, O. Holland, P. Lanzi, L. Spector, A. Tettemanzi, D. Thierens and A. Tyrrell, editors. 2004. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO-2004. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3102-3103, Springer-Verlag. [evolutionary computation]

Spector, L., E. Goodman, A. Wu, W.B. Langdon, H.-M. Voigt, M. Gen, S. Sen, M. Dorigo, S. Pezeshk, M. Garzon, and E. Burke, editors. 2001. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO-2001. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. (Cover, description and ordering information) [evolutionary computation]

Whitley, D., D. Goldberg, E. Cantu-Paz, L. Spector, I. Parmee, and H.-G. Beyer, editors. 2000. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO-2000. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. [evolutionary computation]

Spector, L., U.-M. O'Reilly, W. Langdon, and P. Angeline, editors. 1999. Advances in Genetic Programming, Volume 3. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (MIT Press page, list of chapters and text from the Introduction) [evolutionary computation]


Book Chapters

Spector, L., and T. Helmuth. 2013. Uniform Linear Transformation with Repair and Alternation in Genetic Programming. In Genetic Programming Theory and Practice XI. New York: Springer. In Press. (Preprint pdf 215KB) [evolutionary computation, push]

Helmuth, T., and L. Spector. 2012. Evolving SQL Queries from Examples with Developmental Genetic Programming. In Genetic Programming Theory and Practice X, edited by R. L. Riolo, M. Ritchie, J. Moore, and E. Vladislavleva, pp. 1-14. New York: Springer. (Preprint pdf 266KB) [evolutionary computation, push]

Spector, L., K. Harrington, B. Martin, and T. Helmuth. 2011. What's in an Evolved Name? The Evolution of Modularity via Tag-Based Reference. In Genetic Programming Theory and Practice IX, edited by R. L. Riolo, E. Vladislavleva, and J. Moore, pp. 1-16. New York: Springer. (Preprint pdf 193KB) [evolutionary computation, push]

Spector, L. 2010. Towards Practical Autoconstructive Evolution: Self-Evolution of Problem-Solving Genetic Programming Systems. In Genetic Programming Theory and Practice VIII, edited by R. L. Riolo, T. McConaghy, and E. Vladislavleva, pp. 17-33. New York: Springer. (Preprint pdf 147KB) [artificial life, evolutionary computation, push]

Langdon, W. B., R. I. McKay, and L. Spector. 2010. Genetic Programming. In Handbook of Metaheuristics, 2nd edition, edited by J.-Y. Potvin and M. Gendreau, pp. 185-226. New York: Springer-Verlag. [evolutionary computation]

Coppinger, R., L. Spector, and L. Miller. 2010. What, if anything, is a Wolf? In The World of Wolves:  New Perspectives on Ecology, Behaviour and Management, edited by M. Musiani, L. Boitani and P. Paquet. Calgary: The University of Calgary Press. (Preprint pdf 928KB) [evolutionary dynamics]

Klein, J., and L. Spector. 2009. 3D Multi-Agent Simulations in the breve Simulation Environment. In Artificial Life Models in Software, 2nd edition, edited by A. Adamatzky and M. Komosinski, pp. 79-106. New York: Springer-Verlag.  [agents, artificial life, evolutionary computation, instrumentation]

Klein, J., and L. Spector. 2008. Genetic Programming with Historically Assessed Hardness. In Genetic Programming Theory and Practice VI, edited by R. L. Riolo, T. Soule, and B. Worzel, pp. 61-74. New York: Springer-Verlag. (pdf 144KB) [evolutionary computation, push]

Spector, L., and J. Klein. 2006. Multidimensional Tags, Cooperative Populations, and Genetic Programming. In Genetic Programming Theory and Practice IV, edited by R.L. Riolo, T. Soule, and B. Worzel, pp. 97-112. New York: Springer-Verlag. (pdf 260KB) [agents, evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics, push]

Spector, L., and J. Klein. 2005. Trivial Geography in Genetic Programming. In Genetic Programming Theory and Practice III, edited by T. Yu, R.L. Riolo, and B. Worzel, pp. 109-124. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (pdf 1.2MB) [evolutionary computation, push]

Grafman, J., L. Spector, and M.J. Rattermann. 2005. Planning and the Brain. In The Cognitive Psychology of Planning, edited by R. Morris and G. Ward, pp. 181-198. New York, NY: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis Group). [cognition]

Spector, L. 2003. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding of Genetic Programming. In Genetic Programming: Theory and Practice, edited by R.L Riolo and W. Worzel, pp. 11-24. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (pdf 252KB) [evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics, cognition]

Spector, L., H. Barnum, and H.J. Bernstein. 1999. Quantum Computing Applications of Genetic Programming. In Advances in Genetic Programming, Volume 3, edited by L. Spector, U.-M. O'Reilly, W. Langdon, and P. Angeline, pp. 135-160. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (pdf 732KB) [evolutionary computation, quantum computation, human-competitive]

Spector, L. 1996. Simultaneous Evolution of Programs and their Control Structures. In Advances in Genetic Programming 2, edited by P. Angeline and K. Kinnear, pp. 137-154. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (postscript 231KB, pdf 156KB) [agents, evolutionary computation]

Spector, L. and J. Grafman. 1994. Planning, Neuropsychology, and Artificial Intelligence: Cross-Fertilization. In Handbook of Neuropsychology, Volume 9, edited by F. Boller, and J. Grafman, 377-392. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. [cognition]


Journal Publications

Spector, L. 2014. Peer commentary on Wolfgang Banzhaf's "Genetic Programming and Emergence." In Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, in press. [evolutionary computation]

Spector, L. 2013. Editorial Introduction. In Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 1-2. [evolutionary computation]

McCaffrey, T., and L. Spector. 2012. Behind every innovative solution lies an obscure feature. In Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 146-156. (pdf 227KB) [cognition]

Spector, L. 2012. Editorial Introduction. In Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 1-2. [evolutionary computation]

Muro, C., R. Escobedo, L. Spector, and R. P. Coppinger. 2011. Wolf-pack (Canis lupus) hunting strategies emerge from simple rules in computational simulations. In Behavioural Processes, Vol. 88, pp. 192-197. [agents, cognition]

Muro, C., R. Escobedo, R. P. Coppinger, and L. Spector. 2011. Wolf-pack hunting strategy: an emergent collective behavior described by a classical robotic model (abstract). In Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, p. 94. [agents, cognition]

Spector, L. 2011. Editorial Introduction. In Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 1-2. [evolutionary computation]

Niekum, S., A. Barto, and L. Spector. 2010. Genetic Programming for Reward Function Search. In IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 83-90. (pdf 692KB) [agents, evolutionary computation, learning, push]

Spector, L. 2010. Editorial Introduction. In Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 1-2. [evolutionary computation]

Spector, L. 2009. Editorial Introduction. In Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1-2. [evolutionary computation]

Spector, L. 2008. Introduction to the Special Issue on Genetic Programming for Human-Competitive Designs. In AI-EDAM: Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 183-184. (pdf 320KB) [evolutionary computation, human-competitive]

Spector, L., and J. Klein. 2008. Machine Invention of Quantum Computing Circuits by Means of Genetic Programming. In AI-EDAM: Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 275-283. (pdf 174KB) [evolutionary computation, quantum computation, push, human-competitive]

Spector, L. 2006. Evolution of Artificial Intelligence. In Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 170, Issue 18, pp. 1251-1253. (pdf 84KB) [evolutionary computation, cognition]

Spector, L., and J. Klein. 2006. Genetic Stability and Territorial Structure Facilitate the Evolution of Tag-mediated Altruism. In Artificial Life, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 553-560. (pdf 180KB) [agents, evolutionary dynamics]

Spector, L., J. Klein, and K. Harrington. 2005. Selection Songs: Evolutionary Music Computation. In YLEM Journal, Vol. 25, No. 6 & 8, pp. 24-26 (associated web page, including link to full text). [evolutionary computation, arts, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L., J. Klein, C. Perry, and M. Feinstein. 2005. Emergence of Collective Behavior in Evolving Populations of Flying Agents. In Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 111-125. (pdf 254KB) [agents, evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics, artificial life]

Spector, L. 2002. Book Review: The Quest for the Quantum Computer, by J. Brown. In Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 391-393. [quantum computation]

Spector, L., and A. Robinson. 2002. Genetic Programming and Autoconstructive Evolution with the Push Programming Language. In Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 7-40. (pdf 216KB) [evolutionary computation, push, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L. 2002. Hierarchy Helps it Work That Way. In Philosophical Psychology, Vol. 15, No. 2 (June, 2002), pp. 109-117. (pdf 168KB) [cognition, evolutionary dynamics]

Rattermann, M.J., L. Spector, J. Grafman, H. Levin, and H. Harward. 2001. Partial and total-order planning: evidence from normal and prefrontally damaged populations. In Cognitive Science, Vol. 25, No. 6 (November/December, 2001), pp. 941-975. (pdf 280KB) [cognition]

Barnum, H., H.J. Bernstein, and L. Spector. 2000. Quantum circuits for OR and AND of ORs. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, Vol. 33 No. 45 (17 November 2000), pp. 8047-8057. (postscript 436KB, pdf 156KB) [evolutionary computation, quantum computation]

Spector, L. 2000. The Evolution of Arbitrary Computational Processes. In IEEE Intelligent Systems, May/June 2000, pp. 80-83. (Entire special section in final form, pdf 372KB; Preprint version of just this article: postscript 2.1MB, pdf 168KB). [evolutionary computation]

Spector, L. 1997. Automatic Generation of Intelligent Agent Programs. In IEEE Expert. Jan-Feb 1997, pp. 3-4. (Preprint pdf 13KB) [agents, evolutionary computation]

Spector, L. 1996. Social Structure in Evolutionary Computation Systems. In Communication and Cognition-Artificial Intelligence. Vol. 13, nos 2-3. pp. 141-161. [agents, evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics, artificial life]

Spector, L. 1995. Artificial Intelligence as the Liberal Arts of Computer Science. In SIGART Bulletin: Special Issue on AI Education. Volume 6, Number 2, pp. 8-10. The Association for Computing Machinery. (pdf: 256KB) [education]

Evett, M. P., J. A. Hendler, and L. Spector. 1994. Parallel Knowledge Representation on the Connection Machine. Journal for Parallel and Distributed Computing. Volume 22, number 2, pp. 168-184. [cognition, instrumentation]

Grafman, J., A. Sirigu, L. Spector, and J. Hendler. 1993. Damage to the prefrontal cortex leads to decomposition of structured event complexes. In The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, Volume 8, Number 1, Aspen Publishers, Inc., pp. 73-87. [cognition]

Spector, L. and J. Hendler. 1992. Planning and Reacting Across Supervenient Levels of Representation. In International Journal of Intelligent and Cooperative Information Systems, Volume 1, Numbers 3 & 4, pp. 411-449. [agents, cognition]

Spector, L. and J. Hendler. 1989. Book Review: Minimal Rationality, by C. Cherniak. In Artificial Intelligence, Volume 39, Number 1. [cognition]


Conference and Workshop Papers

Trujillo, L., L. Spector, E. Naredo, and Y. Martinez. 2013. A behavior-based analysis of modal problems. In Companion Publication of the 2013 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO'13 Companion. ACM Press. pp. 1047-1054. [evolutionary computation]

Helmuth, T., and L. Spector. 2013. Evolving a digital multiplier with the PushGP genetic programming system. In Companion Publication of the 2013 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO'13 Companion. ACM Press. pp. 1627-1634. ACM DL Author-ize service(Free Access) [evolutionary computation, push]

Spector, L., K. Harrington, and T. Helmuth. 2012. Tag-based Modularity in Tree-based Genetic Programming. In Proceedings of the 2012 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO'12. ACM Press. pp. 815-822. (pdf 547KB) [evolutionary computation]

Spector, L. 2012. Assessment of Problem Modality by Differential Performance of Lexicase Selection in Genetic Programming: A Preliminary Report. In Companion Publication of the 2012 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO'12 Companion. ACM Press. pp. 401-408. (pdf 220KB) [evolutionary computation]

Tosch, E., and L. Spector. 2012. Achieving COSMOS: A Metric for Determining When to Give up and When to Reach for the Stars. In Companion Publication of the 2012 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO'12 Companion. ACM Press. pp. 417-424. (pdf 1.3MB) [evolutionary computation]

Harrington, K. I., L. Spector, J. B. Pollack, and U.-M. O'Reilly. 2012. Autoconstructive Evolution for Structural Problems. In Companion Publication of the 2012 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO'12 Companion. ACM Press. pp. 75-82. (pdf 705KB) [artificial life, evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics, push]

Spector, L., B. Martin, K. Harrington, and T. Helmuth. 2011. Tag-Based Modules in Genetic Programming. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2011). ACM Press. pp. 1419-1426. (pdf 516KB, associated web page) [evolutionary computation, push, undergraduate coauthor]

Helmuth, T., L. Spector, and B. Martin. 2011. Size-Based Tournaments for Node Selection. In GECCO'11 Workshops, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. ACM Press. pp. 799-802. (pdf 451KB Erratum Note) [evolutionary computation, undergraduate coauthor]

Harrington, K., E. Tosch, L. Spector, and J. Pollack. 2011. Compositional Autoconstructive Dynamics. Unifying Themes in Complex Systems Volume VIII: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Complex Systems. New England Complex Systems Institute Series on Complexity. NECSI Knowledge Press. pp. 856-870. http://necsi.edu/events/iccs2011/proceedings.html. (pdf 1.3MB) [artificial life, evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics, push]

McCaffrey, A.J. and L. Spector. 2011. How the Obscure Features Hypothesis leads to Innovation Assistant software. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computational Creativity, pp. 120-122. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico. (pdf: 1.4MB) [cognition]

Spector, L., D. M. Clark, I. Lindsay, B. Barr, and J. Klein. 2008. Genetic Programming for Finite Algebras. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2008). ACM Press. (associated web page, including link to full text and code) [evolutionary computation, human-competitive, push, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L., J. Klein, and M. Feinstein. 2007. Division blocks and the open-ended evolution of development, form, and behavior. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2007), pp. 316-323. ACM Press. (associated web page, including link to full text, movie, and code) [evolutionary computation, artificial life]

Klein, J., and L. Spector. 2007. Unwitting Distributed Genetic Programming via Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2007), pp. 1628-1635. ACM Press. (associated web page, including link to full text) [evolutionary computation, push, instrumentation]

Spector, L., J. Klein, and M. Keijzer. 2005. The Push3 Execution Stack and the Evolution of Control. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2005), pp. 1689-1696. Springer-Verlag. (pdf: 136KB) [evolutionary computation, push]

Stout, A., and L. Spector. 2005. Validation of Evolutionary Activity Metrics for Long-Term Evolutionary Dynamics. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2005), pp. 137-142. Springer-Verlag. (pdf: 196KB) [artificial life, evolutionary dynamics]

Spector, L., J. Klein, K. Harrington, and R. Coppinger. 2005. Teaching the Evolution of Behavior with SuperDuperWalker. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED-2005), pp. 923-925. IOS Press. (pdf: 552KB) [agents, evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics, education, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L., J. Klein, and C. Perry. 2004. Tags and the Evolution of Cooperation in Complex Environments. In Proceedings of the AAAI 2004 Symposium on Artificial Multiagent Learning. Melno Park, CA: AAAI Press. (pdf: 140KB) [agents, evolutionary dynamics, artificial life]

Spector, L., J. Klein, C. Perry, and M. Feinstein. 2003. Emergence of Collective Behavior in Evolving Populations of Flying Agents. In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2003). Springer-Verlag. pp. 61-73. Winner, Best Paper Award (AAAA Track). (associated web page, including link to full text) [agents, evolutionary dynamics, artificial life]

Spector, L., and H.J. Bernstein. 2003. Communication Capacities of Some Quantum Gates, Discovered in Part through Genetic Programming. In J.H. Shapiro and O. Hirota, Eds., Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement, and Computing (QCMC), pp. 500-503. Princeton, NJ: Rinton Press. (prepress version with additional figures: pdf 1.2MB) [evolutionary computation, quantum computation]

Spector, L. 2002. Adaptive populations of endogenously diversifying Pushpop organisms are reliably diverse. In R. K. Standish, M. A. Bedau, and H. A. Abbass (eds.), Proceedings of Artificial Life VIII, the 8th International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, pp. 142-145. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (pdf 488KB) [agents, artificial life, push, evolutionary dynamics]

Spector, L., and J. Klein. 2002. Evolutionary Dynamics Discovered via Visualization in the BREVE Simulation Environment. In Bilotta et al. (eds), Workshop Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, pp. 163-170. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales. (associated web page, including link to full text) [agents, evolutionary dynamics, artificial life]

Spector, L., and J. Klein. 2002. Complex Adaptive Music Systems in the BREVE Simulation Environment. In Bilotta et al. (eds), Workshop Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, pp. 17-23. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales. (associated web page, including link to full text) [artificial life, evolutionary computation, arts]

Spector, L., and A. Robinson. 2002. Multi-type, Self-adaptive Genetic Programming as an Agent Creation Tool. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Evolutionary Computation for Multi-Agent Systems, ECOMAS-2002, International Society for Genetic and Evolutionary Computation. (pdf 527KB) [agents, evolutionary computation, push, undergraduate coauthor]

Crawford-Marks, R., and L. Spector. 2002. Size Control via Size Fair Genetic Operators in the PushGP Genetic Programming System. In W. B. Langdon, E. Cantu-Paz, K. Mathias, R. Roy, D. Davis, R. Poli, K. Balakrishnan, V. Honavar, G. Rudolph, J. Wegener, L. Bull, M. A. Potter, A. C. Schultz, J. F. Miller, E. Burke, and N. Jonoska (editors), Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO-2002, pp. 733-739. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. (pdf 586KB) [evolutionary computation, push, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L. 2001. Autoconstructive Evolution: Push, PushGP, and Pushpop. In Spector, L., E. Goodman, A. Wu, W.B. Langdon, H.-M. Voigt, M. Gen, S. Sen, M. Dorigo, S. Pezeshk, M. Garzon, and E. Burke, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO-2001, pp. 137-146. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. (pdf 547KB) [evolutionary computation, push]

Weisler, S., R. Bellin, L. Spector, and N. Stillings. 2001. An Inquiry-based Approach to E-learning: The CHAT Digital Learning Environment. In Proceedings of SSGRR-2001, the International Conference on Advances in Infrastructure for Electronic Business, Science, and Education on the Internet. Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L'Aquila, Italy. Proceedings ISBN: ISBN:88-85280-61-7, URL: http://www.ssgrr.it/en/ssgrr2001/papers.htm. (pdf 4.5MB) [education, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L., H. Barnum, and H.J. Bernstein. 1998. Genetic Programming for Quantum Computers. In Genetic Programming 1998: Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference, edited by J.R. Koza, W. Banzhaf, K. Chellapilla, K. Deb, M. Dorigo, D.B. Fogel, M.H. Garzon, D.E. Goldberg, H. Iba, and R.L. Riolo. pp. 365-374. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. (pdf 164KB) [evolutionary computation, quantum computation]

Luke, S., and L. Spector. 1998. A Revised Comparison of Crossover and Mutation in Genetic Programming. In Genetic Programming 1998: Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference, edited by J.R. Koza, W. Banzhaf, K. Chellapilla, K. Deb, M. Dorigo, D.B. Fogel, M.H. Garzon, D.E. Goldberg, H. Iba, and R.L. Riolo. pp. 208-214. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. (pdf 149KB) [evolutionary computation]

Luke, S. and L. Spector. 1997. A Comparison of Crossover and Mutation in Genetic Programming. In Genetic Programming 1997: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference, 240-248. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (pdf 899KB) [evolutionary computation]

Luke, S., L. Spector, D. Rager, and J. Hendler. 1997. Ontology-based Web Agents. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Autonomous Agents, 59-66. W. L. Johnson, Editor. New York: ACM Press. (pdf 80KB) [agents]

Spector, L. 1997. Genetic Programming of Cognitive Models. In M.G. Shafto and P. Langley (editors), Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, p. 1059. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. [agents, cognition, evolutionary computation]

Spector, L., and K. Stoffel. 1996. Automatic Generation of Adaptive Programs. In P. Maes, M. Mataric, J.-A. Meyer, J. Pollack, and S.W. Wilson (editors), From Animals to Animats 4: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, 476-483. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (postscript 366KB; pdf 216KB) [evolutionary computation]

Spector, L., and S. Luke. 1996. Culture Enhances the Evolvability of Cognition. In G. Cottrell (editor), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 672-677. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. (postscript 190KB, pdf 108KB) [evolutionary computation, cognition]

Spector, L., and S. Luke. 1996. Cultural Transmission of Information in Genetic Programming. In Koza, John R., Goldberg, David E., Fogel, David B., and Riolo, Rick L. (editors) Genetic Programming 1996: Proceedings of the First Annual Conference, 209-214. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (postscript 79KB, pdf 68KB) [evolutionary computation, cognition]

Spector, L., and K. Stoffel. 1996. Ontogenetic Programming. In Koza, John R., Goldberg, David E., Fogel, David B., and Riolo, Rick L. (editors) Genetic Programming 1996: Proceedings of the First Annual Conference, 394-399. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (postscript 66k, pdf 60KB) [evolutionary computation]

Luke, S., and L. Spector. 1996. Evolving Teamwork and Coordination with Genetic Programming. In Koza, John R., Goldberg, David E., Fogel, David B., and Riolo, Rick L. (editors) Genetic Programming 1996: Proceedings of the First Annual Conference, 150-156. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (postscript 245KB, pdf 88KB) [agents, evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics]

Stoffel, K., and L. Spector. 1996. High-Performance, Parallel, Stack-Based Genetic Programming. In Koza, John R., Goldberg, David E., Fogel, David B., and Riolo, Rick L. (editors) Genetic Programming 1996: Proceedings of the First Annual Conference, 224-229. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (postscript 88KB, pdf 68KB) [evolutionary computation, instrumentation]

Spector, L., and A. Alpern. 1994. Criticism, Culture, and the Automatic Generation of Artworks. In Proceedings of the Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI-94, 3-8. Menlo Park, CA and Cambridge, MA: AAAI Press/The MIT Press. (pdf, 4MB) [evolutionary computation, arts, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L. 1994. Genetic Programming and AI Planning Systems. In Proceedings of the Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI-94, 1329-1334. Menlo Park, CA and Cambridge, MA: AAAI Press/The MIT Press. (pdf 348KB) [evolutionary computation, cognition]

Spector, L., M. J. Rattermann, and K. Prentice. 1994. Ordering Relations in Human and Machine Planning. In Proceedings of the Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI-94, 80-85. Menlo Park, CA and Cambridge, MA: AAAI Press/The MIT Press. [cognition, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L., and J. Hendler. 1994. The Use of Supervenience in Dynamic-World Planning. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Planning Systems, edited by Kristian Hammond, 158-163. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [cognition, agents]

Spector, L. and J. Hendler. 1990. An Abstraction-Partitioned Model for Reactive Planning. In Proceedings of the Fifth Rocky Mountain Conference on Artificial Intelligence (RMCAI-90), New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. [cognition, agents]

Evett, M., L. Spector, and J. Hendler. 1989. Knowledge Representation on the Connection Machine. In Proceedings of Supercomputing '89, (Reno, NV; Nov. 13-17, 1989), ACM, New York, NY. [cognition, instrumentation]


Posters and Poster Papers

Spector, L., and T. Helmuth. 2012. Empirical Investigation of Size-Based Tournaments for Node Selection in Genetic Programming. In Companion Publication of the 2012 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO'12 Companion. ACM Press. pp. 1485-1486. (pdf 479KB) [evolutionary computation, push]

McCaffrey, Anthony J., and L. Spector. 2011. Innovation is Built on the Obscure: Innovation-Enhancing Software for Uncovering the Obscure. Poster paper, The 8th ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition. [cognition]

Spector, L., T. Helmuth, and K. Harrington. 2011. Fecundity and Selectivity in Evolutionary Computation. In GECCO'11 Posters, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. ACM Press. pp. 129-130. (pdf 168KB) [evolutionary computation]

Niekum, S., L. Spector, and A. Barto. 2011. Evolution of Reward Functions for Reinforcement Learning. In GECCO'11 Posters, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. ACM Press. pp. 177-178. (pdf 137KB) [agents, cognition, evolutionary computation, push]

Rattermann, M. J., L. Spector and J. Grafman. 1996. Total and Partial-Order Planning: Application of Results from Artificial Intelligence to Children and Lesioned Adults. Poster presentation. The Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.

Spector, L. 1995. Evolving Control Structures with Automatically Defined Macros. Poster presentation. Genetic Programming Workshop at the Sixth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms.

Spector, L., M.J. Rattermann and K. Prentice. 1995. Total and partial-order planning: Application of results from artificial intelligence to children. Poster presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development.

Spector, L. 1990. An Abstraction-Partitioned Model for Reactive Planning. Poster presentation. University of Maryland Systems Research Center.


Additional Scientific Publications

Spector, L., C. Perry, J. Klein, and M. Keijzer. 2004. Push 3.0 Programming Language Description. Hampshire College Cognitive Science Technical Report HC-CSTR-2004-02. (pdf 264KB) [push]

Spector, L., E. Anderson, J. Miller, L. Sizer, and N. Stillings. 2004. Hampshire College School of Cognitive Science - Self Study Report. Hampshire College Cognitive Science Technical Report HC-CSTR-2004-01. (pdf 528KB) [education, undergraduate coauthor]

Crawford-Marks, R., L. Spector, and J. Klein. 2004. Virtual Witches and Warlocks: A Quidditch Simulator and Quidditch-Playing Teams Coevolved via Genetic Programming. In Late-Breaking Papers of GECCO-2004, the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. Published by the International Society for Genetic and Evolutionary Computation. (pdf 308KB, Raphael's page on the project, additional movies). [agents, evolutionary computation, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L., C. Perry, and J. Klein. 2003. Push 2.0 Programming Language Description. (html) [push]

Robinson, A., and L. Spector. 2002. Using Genetic Programming with Multiple Data Types and Automatic Modularization to Evolve Decentralized and Coordinated Navigation in Multi-Agent Systems. In Late-Breaking Papers of GECCO-2002, the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. Published by the International Society for Genetic and Evolutionary Computation. (pdf 33KB) [agents, evolutionary computation, push, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L., R. Moore, and A. Robinson. 2001. Virtual Quidditch: A Challenge Problem for Automatically Programmed Software Agents. In E.D. Goodman, editor, Late-Breaking Papers of GECCO-2001, the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. Published by the International Society for Genetic and Evolutionary Computation. (pdf 244KB). [agents, evolutionary computation, undergraduate coauthor]

Barnum, H., H. J. Bernstein, and L. Spector. 2000. Quantum circuits for OR and AND of OR's. Technical Report CSTR-00-014, Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, August 2000. (Gzipped PostScript: 90729 bytes) [evolutionary computation, quantum computation]

Spector, L, H. Barnum, H.J. Bernstein, and N. Swamy. 1999. Abstract for Invited Presentation: Quantum Computing and AI. In Proceedings of the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI-99, AAAI Press. [evolutionary computation, quantum computation, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L., H. Barnum, H.J. Bernstein, and N. Swamy. 1999. Finding a Better-than-Classical Quantum AND/OR Algorithm using Genetic Programming. In Proceedings of the 1999 Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pp. 2239-2246. IEEE Press. (postscript 2.3MB, pdf 307KB) [evolutionary computation, quantum computation, undergraduate coauthor]

Barnum, H., Bernstein, H. J., and Spector, L. 1999. Better-than-classical Circuits for OR and AND/OR Found Using Genetic Programming. Los Alamos Preprint Archive, http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/quant-ph/9907056 [evolutionary computation, quantum computation]

Luke, S., L. Spector, and D. Rager. 1996. Ontology-Based Knowledge Discovery on the World-Wide Web. InWorking Notes of the AAAI-96 Workshop on Internet-based Information Systems. (pdf 204KB) [agents, cognition]

Luke, S., and L. Spector. 1996. Evolving Graphs and Networks with Edge Encoding: Preliminary Report. In Koza, John R. (editor), Late-Breaking Papers at the Genetic Programming 1996 Conference. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Bookstore (ISBN 0-18-201-031-7). (pdf 104KB) [evolutionary computation]

Spector, L. 1995. Evolving Control Structures with Automatically Defined Macros. Working Notes of the AAAI Fall Symposium on Genetic Programming. The American Association for Artificial Intelligence. pp. 99-105. (postscript 219KB, pdf 188KB) [evolutionary computation]

Spector, L., and A. Alpern. 1995. Induction and Recapitulation of Deep Musical Structure. In Working Notes of the IJCAI-95 Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Music. pp. 41-48. (postscript 615KB, pdf 204KB) [arts, evolutionary computation, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L. 1994. Artificial Intelligence as the Liberal Arts of Computer Science. In Working Notes of the AAAI Fall Symposium on Improving the Instruction of Introductory AI. The American Association for Artificial Intelligence. pp. 31-33. [education]

Spector, L. 1992. Supervenience in Dynamic-World Planning, Doctoral dissertation. CS-TR-2899, UMIACS-TR-92-55, Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland. (Description and availability.) [agents, cognition]

Spector, L., B. Andersen, J. Hendler, B. Kettler, E. Schwartzman, C. Woods, and M. Evett. 1992. Knowledge Representation in PARKA - Part 2: Experiments, Analysis, and Enhancements. CS-TR-2837, UMIACS-TR-92-16, Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland. [cognition, instrumentation, undergraduate coauthor]

Spector, L. and J. Hendler. 1991. The Supervenience Architecture. In Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium on Sensory Aspects of Robotic Intelligence. The American Association for Artificial Intelligence. [agents, cognition]

Spector, L. and J. Hendler. 1991. The Supervenience Architecture. In The Proceedings of the IJCAI-91 Workshop on Theoretical and Practical Design of Rational Agents, Sydney, Australia. [agents, cognition]

Spector, L. and J. Hendler. 1990. Knowledge Strata: Reactive Planning with a Multi-level Architecture. UMIACS-TR-90-140, CS-TR-2564, Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland. [agents, cognition]

Spector, L., J. Hendler, and M. Evett. 1990. Knowledge Representation in PARKA. UMIACS-TR-90-23, CS-TR-2410, Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland. [agents, cognition, instrumentation]

Evett, M., J. Hendler, and L. Spector. 1990. PARKA: Parallel Knowledge Representation on the Connection Machine. UMIACS-TR-90-22, CS-TR-2409, Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland. [agents, cognition, instrumentation]

Spector, L., J. Hendler, J. Canning, and A. Rosenfeld. 1988. Symbolic Model/Image Matching in Expert Vision Systems. CAR-TR-370, CS-TR-2060, University of Maryland Center for Automation Research. [agents, cognition]


Tutorials with published slides

Expressive Genetic Programming. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 2013.

Expressive Genetic Programming. Tutorial, 12th International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving From Nature (PPSN), September, 2012.

Expressive Genetic Programming. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 2012.

Evolving Quantum Computer Algorithms. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 2011.

Evolving Quantum Computer Algorithms. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 2010.

Evolving Quantum Computer Algorithms. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 2009.

Quantum Computing. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 2008.

Quantum Computing. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 2007.

Quantum Computing. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 2006.

Quantum Computing. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 2005.

Automated Invention by Means of Genetic Programming. Tutorial, with John Koza, Nineteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), July 25, 2004.

Quantum Computing. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 2003.

Quantum Computing for Genetic Programmers. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 2002.

Quantum Computing. Tutorial, Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), July, 1999.


Newspaper Op-Ed

And now, digital evolution. In The Boston Globe, August 29, 2005. (The Globe's page, local copy) [evolutionary computation]


Published Letters

Letter to the editor, The Daily Hampshire Gazette, regarding local taxes, May 30, 2009.

Letter to the editor, The Daily Hampshire Gazette, regarding funding for public education, May 19, 2006.

Letter to the editor, New York Times, regarding warrantless surveillance, March 10, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/10/opinion/l10abuse.html?_r=1&oref=slogin&pagewanted=print

Letter to the editor, Scientific American, regarding nanobots, January, 2002.

Letter to the editor, Circuits section, New York Times, regarding robotic pets, May 11, 2000. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9407E1D9163BF932A25756C0A9669C8B63

Letter to the editor, IEEE Intelligent Systems, regarding quantum computing, September/October, 1999.


Quotes and Mentions

New Scientist magazine, "Wolf packs don't need to cooperate to make a kill," by Michael Marshall. Co-authored paper cited; co-author quoted. October 26, 2011. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21228354.700-wolf-packs-dont-need-to-cooperate-to-make-a-kill.html?DCMP=OTC-rss&nsref=online-news

WFCR, National Public Radio, "Hampshire Prof. Wins Grant to Create Computer Software That Can Evolve On Its Own," by Fred Bever, radio story. September 6, 2010.

The Daily Hampshire Gazette, on the politics of software choices. "Hampshire takes lead on software,'' by Stacey Butterfield. November 24, 2001.

Technology Research News, on the use of digital organisms in the study of evolutionary dynamics. "Virtual beings boost evolutionary theory," by Ted Smalley Bowen. Oct 10, 2001. http://www.trnmag.com/Stories/2001/101001/Virtual_beings_boost_evolutionary_theory_101001.html

The Chronicle of Higher Education, on open-source software. "Hampshire College Favors Noncommercial Web Software Open to All." Wednesday, October 3, 2001. http://chronicle.merit.edu/free/2001/10/2001100301t.htm

The Orlando Sentinel, on robotic pets. "They Bark, They Byte. Robotic Rovers Are The Rage -- Woof It Up With Our Computerized-Pets Guide." Friday, December 8, 2000.

Details magazine, on the possibility of computers having senses of humor. "Take My Hard Drive... Please; A computer may have beaten chess champion Garry Kasparov, but will one ever be able to tell a joke?" March, 2000.

The Daily Hampshire Gazette, on the importance of computers in the 20th century. "It was a century for invention." January 1/2, 2000.

Salon.com on-line magazine, on genetic programming applications to quantum computing and jazz composition. "Software that Writes Software." August 10, 1999. http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/1999/08/10/genetic_programming/index.html

Scientific American, on the use of "cultures" in genetic programming and on ontogenetic programming. "Programming With Primordial Ooze." October, 1996. 



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